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Kamis, 02 April 2009

How to Earn Money Online with Desktop Publishing

Desktop publishing is about using the computer and software to create documents, flyers, newsletter, brochures, book and other publications for commercial purpose.


If you know about desktop publishing and like to be creative, think about starting an Internet business with desktop publishing. There are no expensive machines you have to buy to start making money with desktop publishing. All the documents are created using one or two software in your computer and printed out using your color printer. So, you can begin with small capital and build it up gradually.

There are demands for desktop publishing service. A lot of people want to create creative documents, brochures and other publications using computer but they don't know how to create one themselves. So, you can make money by providing them your desktop publishing service.

What skills are needed?

Since everything is done using the computer. You need to be able to use several types of software programs for desktop publishing and possess some design skills. It will be even better if you have natural talent on this area.

What equipments are needed?

You will of course need a computer and below are other tools you must possess as well:

  • Desktop publishing software
  • Photo editing program
  • Printer (laser or color)
  • Scanner
  • Good quality paper for printing
Once you obtain all the above necessary tools, it is time to start your desktop publishing business.

The first important thing you need to do is find a niche you want to target on. You will be putting your marketing efforts into this single niche to make money with desktop publishing.

You are going to need to build a website to market your desktop publishing service to the selected niche. Your website should look professional and include samples of your work to show your expertise in this field to your target prospects.

How to get your target prospects to visit your website and check out your service?

This will involve the use of Internet marketing methods:

Pay per click advertising - The method that can give you instant target prospects is pay per click (PPC) advertising. With PPC advertising, you will pay each time a targeted visitor is sent to your from PPC search engines such as Google and Yahoo. It is a good method for getting targeted visitors for short term. But, you shouldn’t rely on it for long run as it can be very expensive to you.

Press release - You may hire someone to write a press release about the service you are offering and then submit the press release to news sites. It may bring in some clients for your business.

Article marketing - There are large traffic article directories that will publish your articles. Keep on writing articles related to your service and publish them on the article directories. This way, more people will know about your business and click the link in the resource box of your articles to learn more about your offer.

Other than using your website to get potential clients, you may also join those freelance bidding websites (guru.com and elance.com). These freelance sites have an online marketplace for freelance projects and jobs; and new opportunities are posted everyday. So, they may be good places for you to find more desktop publishing work.

Linkshowoff.com - Get Paid for Showing Text Links

For those of you who own a new blog or website, it will be nice if your website or blog can make some extra money for you to cover your web hosting cost.

I have come across a fairly new text link marketplace called Linkshowoff which allows you to sell text links on your site or blog. The process of selling links through Linkshowoff is simple and requires only little effort on your part.

All that you need to do is sign up as a publisher of Linkshowoff. Your site will then be listed on the directory of Linkshowoff. The advertisers will come and visit Linkshowoff's directory. If they found that your site is fit for buying text links, they will pay you to display a text link on your site.

The advertisers’ text links that display on your site will carry the 'nofollow' attribute. So, you don't need to worry that Google will penalize your site because of selling text links.

The minimum payout is $10. Once you have earned that amount, you can request payment makes to your PayPal account.

Linkshowoff also has a referral system that rewards you for referring new webmaster and blogger to join Linkshowoff. You will be paid $3 for every referral that earns $3.

Blogging for Cash - Work Less and Earn Less

I have been blogging for more than 2 years and recently started to feel bored and tire on blogging. I have worked lesser for this blog for the past few weeks and hope that both my traffic and income can be maintained. But thing doesn't go as I wish. Because I didn't publish as much content as I usually do and put lesser effort on SEO. As a result, I experienced a quite serious drop in Google Rankings for several keywords. My traffic decreased more than 20% and makes lesser money from this blog.


And now, I didn't feel like I want to brings back my Google rankings and recover my traffic and income level. With the traffic now, I still make enough for my living. Moreover, I have found another way to make money recently. It is quite an interesting way of making money but has nothing to do with the Internet. I now feel like want to focus more on this than blogging. I have switched some of my time and effort from blogging to this new way of making money and have got some good result. If thing continues to go well, I will make far more than blogging. But, because I still in the testing stage, so I didn't want to reveal it here yet.

On the other hand, it is not easy to make money blogging on long term. Once you have built up consistent traffic for a blog, you must continue to publish new blog posts regularly. This is to ensure your traffic can grow from time to time. If you publish lesser blog posts every week, you will find your traffic keep on failing. So, you have to keep your content publication frequency in order to survive in blogging for long term. You must be willing to do research to get content ideas and write for your blog regularly. Getting content ideas and publishing blog posts on an ongoing basis will be a tough challenge to you if you want to make money blogging for long term.

For this blog, I still will publish articles that are useful for making money online. But, because I have other thing to focus on, the blog posts and articles that publish here will be slightly lesser. Occasionally, I still will do some blog marketing and SEO to recover some of my traffic. And, I finally I would hope to stop blogging in the third quarter of next year. It’s just too boring and tire to blog for long term to me.

More Earning Opportunities in Smorty.com

Smorty has been in business for sometime. It is another pay-per-post blog network where any blogger can get involved and make money by publishing paid post on their blog.


It seems that Smorty is doing well; it's blog network is growing bigger and bigger and attracting more advertisers to pay bloggers in the network for writing paid post.

Recently, Smorty has introduced another income stream to bloggers. It is called Digxa mini store link advertising. The name may sound weire to you but it actually works quite simple.

When you join Smorty and opt to make money with their Digxa mini store link advertising system, you will be instructed to place a code on your blog. Then, the system will automatically find suitable keywords in the content of your blog and underline those keywords. If a visitor points the mouse over an underline keyword, a mini store banner will showcase a few products. If the visitor clicks on a product link, you will earn a share of advertising revenue.

Learn more about Smorty here.

Free Resources Helpful for Making Money Online - 27th Aug 2008

Some free resources that might help you:


EbookMarketing101.com
This site is offering a free course about how to make money online with e-books. The course will take you through the entire process of creating your own e-book product and market it on the Internet to make money.

Listing Building Report
You probably need to build a list if you run an online business. The report titled 'The Seven Secrets to Building a List' which can be downloaded in www.map4cash.com will provide you some good methods for building an email list that is profitable to your business.

Exposive Traffic System
Are you earning income through a website or blog? If yes, I'm sure you are interested to learn any free techniques of generating traffic to your website so that you can make the most from your site. The e-book 'Exposive Traffic System' focuses specifically on the topic of traffic-generating. So, you may want to read this e-book to get more ideas of increasing your traffic.

How to Make Money Online by Coaching Others

A coach is a person who has know-how knowledge or special skill in a particular field and sharing it other people what want to achieve success in that particular field as well. Coaches can be an expert at anything from writing to marketing to business itself.


Many people have good knowledge at something or experience in a particular field. If you are one of them who are expert at an area, you can become a coach and earn money sharing your knowledge. On the Internet, there are a lot of coaches who help others in web design, graphic design, Internet marketer, SEO and many more.

There are a few important things you must have to become a coach and make money online. Firstly, you must have the ability to be a good listener. And patience is also needed when guiding your clients. Those people that hire you to become their coach would expect you to listen to their bad experiences and help guide them out of the muck they find themselves in no matter how strange they may sound.

To establish good reputation and credibility in the coaching business, you should know your field well. If you haven't done Internet marketing before, then being an Internet marketing coach isn't a good idea, because you don't possess real experience in this field and your students will find out that quickly.

The tools required for starting a coaching business are a computer, an email program, a website that sells your service, a shopping cart for receiving payment and telephone line dedicated for this business. There will be a lot of conversations occurring between you and your students. Both the email program and the phone line are set up for this purpose.

To start your coaching business, you need to first write a plan. Decide what coaching service you want to offer. Obviously, you will want to become a coach in the field that you have excellent knowledge in.

Then, set up a sale website to market your service. Describe exactly what service you are providing. Publish some good articles and content related to your field. This can help build credibility and expert status for your business.

Your website should also tell how much you will be charging. If possible include some positive testimonials from others who have tried your services to increase your chance of getting clients. Make your site look professional and clean; and also the navigation links of your site should be as simple as possible.

Once your sale website launched, you are ready to do business. You will want as many potential clients as possible come to your website and check out your offer so that you can make sales. Starting several Internet marketing campaigns such as pay-per-click advertising, article marketing and press release are some good ideas to market your service to your potential clients.

Not every potential client who comes to your site will participate in your coaching program. In fact, you may find that the majority of your potential clients don’t sign up your coaching program on the first visit on your site. Since they are your potential clients, you should find a way to collect their contact information before they leave your site so that you can later persuade them to sign up your program.

Perhaps offering your potential clients a free mini course on your website is a good way to collect their email contact information. Those who find you mini course good may go ahead and sign up your coaching program. Others whom take no action after the finish of the mini course may one day become your clients because you have got the email address where you can communicate with them often to build up good relationship and entice them to join your coaching program.

Free 17 Videos Show you How to Get Search Engine Visitors

Keith Baxter's new video series 'The Kingspoint Project' has load of content and tips that can help you generate a steady flow of search engine traffic.


Keith himself has done a good job on getting search engine traffic to his sites and earn a good income from those traffic. In his video tutorial series, he is going to show you exactly step by step how you can also generate natural search traffic to your site or blog and see these traffic convert into income.

You'll learn most of the aspects of search engine optimization that are important for getting your site ranking high in search engines and enjoying free search engine traffic.

All these video tutorials are 100% free and can be accessed here.

Tips for Making Money Online with Cash Crate

Cash Crate can be a great way for teens and adults together to earn money online. In this post I will talk about Cash Crate as well as the pros and cons of the site.


What is Cash Crate?

Cash Crate is a gpt site generally speaking where you get paid a certain amount to do little tasks such as fill out free offers or take surveys. These little tasks usually pay somewhere between $.50 to $8.00. Cash Crate makes money every time you complete an offer. When someone completes an offer Cash Crate is paid a certain of money, most of which they pass on to you. This is how Cash Crate is able to stay in business.

Pros

  • Filling out free offers with Cash Crate can make you a lot of money in a short period of time. The offers don’t usually take more than a few minutes to complete as long as you stay on task.
  • Cash Crate’s payout is $10.00 which is very low. This makes it easy for you to receive money from them very quickly. You also have the option to change the payout price to whatever you want. This is very convenient if you make tons of money with them and don’t want to be paid every week or so.
  • You only have to be 13 years old to sign up with Cash Crate. This gives teens a way to make money online. Cash Crate is very friendly and is easy to use.
  • Cash Crate does pay. If you don’t believe me type in “cash crate proof of payment” on Google Images and you will see dozens of checks from them.
Cons
  • In order to complete the Cash Crate offers, you must give information like your email address and sometimes your address. While this can be partially avoided by making another email address just for Cash Crate, some people don’t feel comfortable giving away their personal info.
  • If you chose to get paid by check, the payment takes a while to arrive. Usually 2-4 weeks.
Cash Crate Referral System

Cash Crate has one of the best referral systems that I have seen. For every person you refer, you get 20% of their earnings. You also get 10% of your referral’s referrals earnings. Another great thing about Cash Crate’s referral system is that once one of your referrals make $10.00, you are credited with another $3.00. If you are able to obtain enough referrals, you can make money just with Cash Crate’s referral system.

Tips for Making Money Online with Cash Crate

Cash Crate can be a great way for teens and adults together to earn money online. In this post I will talk about Cash Crate as well as the pros and cons of the site.


What is Cash Crate?

Cash Crate is a gpt site generally speaking where you get paid a certain amount to do little tasks such as fill out free offers or take surveys. These little tasks usually pay somewhere between $.50 to $8.00. Cash Crate makes money every time you complete an offer. When someone completes an offer Cash Crate is paid a certain of money, most of which they pass on to you. This is how Cash Crate is able to stay in business.

Pros

  • Filling out free offers with Cash Crate can make you a lot of money in a short period of time. The offers don’t usually take more than a few minutes to complete as long as you stay on task.
  • Cash Crate’s payout is $10.00 which is very low. This makes it easy for you to receive money from them very quickly. You also have the option to change the payout price to whatever you want. This is very convenient if you make tons of money with them and don’t want to be paid every week or so.
  • You only have to be 13 years old to sign up with Cash Crate. This gives teens a way to make money online. Cash Crate is very friendly and is easy to use.
  • Cash Crate does pay. If you don’t believe me type in “cash crate proof of payment” on Google Images and you will see dozens of checks from them.
Cons
  • In order to complete the Cash Crate offers, you must give information like your email address and sometimes your address. While this can be partially avoided by making another email address just for Cash Crate, some people don’t feel comfortable giving away their personal info.
  • If you chose to get paid by check, the payment takes a while to arrive. Usually 2-4 weeks.
Cash Crate Referral System

Cash Crate has one of the best referral systems that I have seen. For every person you refer, you get 20% of their earnings. You also get 10% of your referral’s referrals earnings. Another great thing about Cash Crate’s referral system is that once one of your referrals make $10.00, you are credited with another $3.00. If you are able to obtain enough referrals, you can make money just with Cash Crate’s referral system.

The Beginner Guide to Setting Up a Freelancing Business to Make Money Online

If you are one of the many people who has planned to get into the Internet freelancing industry, there are some important things you must know. Outlined below are 4 necessary things you must have so that you can start your online freelancing business easier and be more successful when running the business.


Website

Even if you are just starting out with your online freelancing business or even if you simply wish to make use of bidding sites for freelancing, never forget the importance of having a website. Your freelancing website should contain information about yourself, what your credentials are, and what you are capable of doing. If you have a good website for your online freelancing business, it would be easier for potential customers to trust you with the work they require.

Portfolio

When starting a freelancing business over the internet, you would need to publish your own portfolio. If you already have a website, putting your information there is necessary. Potential clients will first be looking at this portfolio to get to know your skills as well as what your freelancing business has to offer. They would want to see your previous works in order for them to determine if your capabilities fit their needs. For this reason, you must be sure to publish your best works that exemplify exactly what you can offer to your clients.

Rates

Your website should contain all the pertinent information regarding what kind of services your online freelancing business can offer. Depending on whether or not you have standard rates for your services, you may choose to publish prices in your online freelancing website or advice your visitors to contact you so you can provide them with a quotation for the work they require. However, you must take into consideration that some people prefer to see rates and prices immediately rather than wait for a quote. If you do not have standard prices for your services, you can simply publish a price range for all the services you offer just to give your visitors an idea of what to expect. If the price range that you publish suits their budget, they will contact you for a more specific quotation.

Legitimacy

The World Wide Web is open to everyone and there are thousands of business websites that are not registered. However, it is better to have your business registered at least with your local government. Doing this will help you gain the trust of your potential customers. This will also allow you to advertise your freelancing services in your local newspaper. If you opt to do this for your online freelancing business, you will have more chances of gaining clients since more individuals would rather work with registered businesses especially for legal and accounting purposes. This will also help you develop a better reputation for your freelancing business and it will give your potential customers an impression that it is safe to do business with you.

The Internet CEO - How To Make "Independent" Money Online

Making Money If You Do "Not" Have Your Own Website


What I have learned over the years is that you have to do a lot of small things correctly. One good way to make independent money online is to market your products and services on high traffic websites such as this one. You can accomplish this by having a link or banner (some advertisement of some sort) to your website from their website. For example: Just say if a high traffic website is getting between say maybe 100,000 - 200,000 visitors a month and you took 1,000 - 2,000 (this is on the low end) of their traffic a month, the numbers will quickly add up.

Another way you can make independent money online is to promote affiliate programs. If you have a website of your own that is already receiving a pretty good amount of traffic, you can promote it on your site. But if not, then I would suggest something like Pay Per Click or promoting it on high traffic websites that are on the same theme like the example above.

Making Money If You "Do" Have Your Own Website

You have to build your backlinks if you want to make money online for the long haul. You do not necessarily have to be at the very top of the search engines to make money online but it is crucial that you build a credible website. You have to build a "buzz". One of the best
ways to do this is through building backlinks.

Making independent money online is not like regular internet marketing. It takes a lot more hard work and dedication to marketing on your own terms. This includes using your own avenues to get the word out about your business. You have to be creative as well as think "outside the box". A better way to fully understand what making independent money online is this, ask yourself, "if my main source of traffic was taken away from me today, what do I have to fall back on for traffic and stability? This is why it is so important to have multiple streams of traffic going into your website. Since having a successful internet business is all about longevity, making independent money online is the only way.

Successful Home Based Business - Why Are People Searching?

We are living in a day and age where you are either your own boss, or someone's slave. For those of you working under conditions where you are not happy, you know exactly what this feels like. People seek to find their own successful home based business because they are wanting something more. They know that life is not just made up of clock work. Feeling like you are slave to a clock can be physically and emotionally draining. Working from home opens up the door to ultimate freedom and gets you away from your dreaded 9 to 5.

The idea of having a home based business has been around for a while, and is now becoming more popular and much more of a reality for a lot of different people with different job backgrounds. You can basically pick whatever it is that you want to do, and go with that idea. You must stay focused on your dream, or it cannot grow into reality. You won't get rich overnight, starting a successful home based business takes time and patience. In time, your business can indeed turn into a successful venture. Having a home based business is often very appealing for people who want to invest little to no money while still reaping the benefits of a large investment. Trying to start a successful home based business is smart.

It is for the mother or father who wants to stay home with their children. Not everyone has the money for the cost of daycare these days. It can be a real hassle for couples with numerous children. Daycare costs can add up to hundreds of dollars per week, taking literally over half of the family's income. Working from home at your home based business can allow both parents to quit their day job, and focus on what is most important.

Having a successful home based business is often flexible enough to allow you to stay at your current position while still working from home to build your future business in your spare time. Most people usually only invest a few hours a week starting off. It can take up to two years for a home based business to grow and become successful. The more hours that you invest, the quicker your business can grow. There are certainly a lot of people out there who are willing to invest dozens of hours a week in addition to their current job because they really want to get away from corporate America. Who doesn't?

You don't have to worry about the high cost of gas. With the way the economy is going, it is no wonder that more and more people are reaching for their home laptops and searching for successful home based business ideas. More and more folks are losing their jobs of today, and fearing that there is no future for them tomorrow. Something has to happen, and it is happening at home. There are so many different areas of business to go into when you choose to do it your own way. You can even choose to have more than one if you would like.

Starting up a successful home based business is worth the time and work. But do not be deceived, there is a lot of work involved. There will be times in the beginning that you will feel like beating your head against the pavement. Just remember to relax and be consistent. A business takes time, patience, and a real effort. The harder you try, the more likely you will be to able to succeed.

More details about a successful home based business opportunity can be found on www.HomeBizTopEarner.com.

Successful Home Based Business - Why Are People Searching?

We are living in a day and age where you are either your own boss, or someone's slave. For those of you working under conditions where you are not happy, you know exactly what this feels like. People seek to find their own successful home based business because they are wanting something more. They know that life is not just made up of clock work. Feeling like you are slave to a clock can be physically and emotionally draining. Working from home opens up the door to ultimate freedom and gets you away from your dreaded 9 to 5.

The idea of having a home based business has been around for a while, and is now becoming more popular and much more of a reality for a lot of different people with different job backgrounds. You can basically pick whatever it is that you want to do, and go with that idea. You must stay focused on your dream, or it cannot grow into reality. You won't get rich overnight, starting a successful home based business takes time and patience. In time, your business can indeed turn into a successful venture. Having a home based business is often very appealing for people who want to invest little to no money while still reaping the benefits of a large investment. Trying to start a successful home based business is smart.

It is for the mother or father who wants to stay home with their children. Not everyone has the money for the cost of daycare these days. It can be a real hassle for couples with numerous children. Daycare costs can add up to hundreds of dollars per week, taking literally over half of the family's income. Working from home at your home based business can allow both parents to quit their day job, and focus on what is most important.

Having a successful home based business is often flexible enough to allow you to stay at your current position while still working from home to build your future business in your spare time. Most people usually only invest a few hours a week starting off. It can take up to two years for a home based business to grow and become successful. The more hours that you invest, the quicker your business can grow. There are certainly a lot of people out there who are willing to invest dozens of hours a week in addition to their current job because they really want to get away from corporate America. Who doesn't?

You don't have to worry about the high cost of gas. With the way the economy is going, it is no wonder that more and more people are reaching for their home laptops and searching for successful home based business ideas. More and more folks are losing their jobs of today, and fearing that there is no future for them tomorrow. Something has to happen, and it is happening at home. There are so many different areas of business to go into when you choose to do it your own way. You can even choose to have more than one if you would like.

Starting up a successful home based business is worth the time and work. But do not be deceived, there is a lot of work involved. There will be times in the beginning that you will feel like beating your head against the pavement. Just remember to relax and be consistent. A business takes time, patience, and a real effort. The harder you try, the more likely you will be to able to succeed.

More details about a successful home based business opportunity can be found on www.HomeBizTopEarner.com.

Rabu, 01 April 2009

Make Money Online with Affiliate Marketing Through an Effective Newsletter

Publishing newsletter is a powerful method for building an email opt-in list and marketing your affiliate products or services to earn consistent affiliate commissions. Many affiliates will create a website and a squeeze page to invite targeted visitors to sign up for their newsletters.


The affiliates will obtain the email address of their targeted visitors during the sign up process. The affiliates will then publish and send their newsletters to the members in their mailing list on weekly, bi-weekly or monthly basis.

Newsletters have helped a lot of affiliates achieve success in affiliate marketing. As many people realized that newsletter is a power tool for increasing affiliate commission, so many of them who do affiliate marketing started to create a newsletter of their own. As a result, there are now thousands of free email newsletters available on the Internet. But, the sad news is, many of these newsletters aren't making any reasonable money for the affiliates.

To really improve the performance of your affiliate marketing business through a newsletter, you need to create an effective newsletter. And below are some helpful tips for creating and running a newsletter successfully:

1. The Newsletter's content should be Targeted to Your Niche
If you want to have a newsletter that can brings in decent of affiliate commission for you, then the articles and information of your newsletter need to be directly related to your niche. If your niche is Internet marketing, avoid sending content about weight loss. Your subscribers will want information and content highly and directly relevant to the topic

2. Create the Content Yourself
The newsletter will help you build your own reputation. You need to let your subscribers know that you are an expert in the topic. So, you need be creative. Try to put in more original ideas and write all the articles and content yourself. If you copy and paste other people content onto your newsletter, subscribers who read your newsletter will not see your own work. Then this will mean you are promoting others instead of yourself. If the subscribers appreciate the content inside your newsletter, then they are actually appreciating the original author who writes the content, not you.

But, sometimes, if you see some excellent articles, you can include one or two of them into your newsletter. But you should write your own introduction in the beginning of the article and also let the readers know why you are including the article.

3. Make Your Newsletter Publication on a Weekly Basis
If possible, send your newsletter once a week to your subscribers or once in every two weeks. Avoid monthly newsletters as they are not that effective. Publishing your newsletter weekly is probably the best practice. But avoid sending more than once a week, as subscribers want to hear from you but not so often.

4. Short Articles and Straight to the Point
The ideal length for the articles inside your newsletter is 250 to 800 words. If your articles are longer than that, you can break them into two to three parts. Use more simple words and sentences to make your articles easy to read and understand.

5. Promote One Affiliate Product or Service Each Month
Every month, choose and focus one affiliate product or service that you want to market during that particular month. Make sure the affiliate product you selected is relevant to your newsletter topics. This way your subscribers will also focus on receiving one product offer in every month and they may turn into buyers.

6. Offer Incentives
You may offer free gift or downloadable materials (e-books, software, report, etc) to your subscribers occasionally. This could make your subscribers happy and help establish good relationship. If the subscribers like you, they will stay as a subscriber of your newsletter for long.

Applying these six tips can help you build a revenue-generating newsletter. Just be focused on what you are doing and send your newsletters at least twice in a month.

How to Increase Your eBay Profit Using Social Media Websites

Social marketing and networking are now the favorite marketing strategies of Internet marketers, webmasters and bloggers. They use social media sites to generate a steady stream of traffic, boost sales and develop a brand presence within specific communities which will ultimately increase their online revenue.


The social media sites are even helpful for increasing eBay profit. If you have eBay auctions set up selling a variety of products, you can use the social media sites to get more potential buyers to visit your eBay auction listings. The more exposure your eBay auction listings get, the more sales you could possibly generate and the more profit you will earn.

The social media sites such as Myspace and Facebook provide features that you can use them specifically to gain attention to your eBay auction listings. Mention in you profile that you are an eBay seller. Include links to your listing pages in your profile. If you do run an eBay store, mention it in your profile as well. This will help promote your eBay listings.

As a member of Myspace, you are allowed to use the bulletin section of Myspace where you can send bulletins to all your Myspace's friends anytime. Spend some time to create bulletins for your eBay listings. Make sure you include a link to the listing within the each bulletin before sending out. As friend list is the key to success when using bulletin. You need to have as many friends as possible that are interested to your niche or interested to what you are offering. So, when you are building your friend list, try to find those people that have an interest on your niche or on the products you are selling.

Pictures can speak thousand of words. So, you should set up your own photo albums to add pictures of your products that currently auction in eBay. People are more likely to check out your eBay auctions if they can see pictures of your products especially when they see something that they are interested.

If you run an eBay storefront, the biggest web video sharing site - Youtube is a great place to promote your eBay business. You can create and upload web video about your brand. Post videos about your products. Funny and entertaining web videos can attract many viewers. You may think about creating some of those videos that can relate to your business and publish them on Youtube so that you can get these viewers to visit your eBay store and possibly become your buyers.

Make More Money Online with Jeff Johnson's New SEO Tool

Jeff Johnson has launched a new SEO software tool that can increase your blog's search engine traffic. The SEO tool will help both the existing and new blog to gain better search engine rankings. Jeff has personally used it to get more free traffic and make more money online.


This SEO tool is 100% free to install and when you sign up to get the tool, you will also be given access to a series of free search engine training to help you get started on your own.

Interested to test drive this free SEO tool for your blog? Here is the link to sign up:

http://www.undergroundtraininglab.com/main.php


Take some to play with the tool. Once you are familiar with it, you may begin using it to improve your SE rankings.

Make Money Online by Doing Freelance Data Entry Works

There are tons of freelance date entry work opportunities popping up on the Internet. These freelance data entry jobs generally offer flexible and convenient work timings. You’ll not need to report to a boss and so you are working without pressure. You just have to make sure your work is completed in accordance to the hirer’s requirements and submit the work within the stipulated time.

The fast developing businesses, online entrepreneurs and small companies are in need of data entry freelancers. They often have huge work load in the field of data entry processing and find that it is impossible for their existing full-time staffs to finish the data entry works on time. What is the solution to these situations? They will probably post ads on the Internet and newspaper to find the right freelancers to help them complete their data entry works.

What You Need to Become a Date Entry Freelancer
If you have a fast and accurate typing skill, then it is not difficult for you to find a freelance data entry job through the Internet and make some extra cash. Some freelance jobs do need some experience, other are welcoming anyone to apply as the jobs require no special skills and previous experience. As long as you have a fairly good typing skill and some basic computer knowledge with fast speed Internet connection, you can become a data entry operator and make money at your comfort home using your computer.

Watch out for Scams
You need to be very careful when searching data entry opportunities on the Internet as there so many data entry scams programs out there. These scams programs typically have their own website and sale page set up to lure people into paying money to join their programs. They will promise that you can get rich with little effort in data entry. But once you have paid and accessed to their program, you will find that all that they describe in their sale pages aren’t true and become very disappointed.

So, you should avoid any program that asks you to pay a fee so that you can start working for them immediately. Keep away also from those websites claiming that you can make $500 with data entry job, make easy money by posting ads, email processing and etc.

How to Find the Legitimate Jobs?
To find legitimate freelance data entry work opportunities, you should check out freelance services sites websites such Elance.com and Guru.com. The employers are searching for data entry operators and professionals through these freelance sites from time to time. So, you can find a lot of opportunities there. To apply for a data entry freelance job, you need to join as a member of Elance.com or Guru.com. Then you will update your profile, access the job boards and place your price to bid for the freelance jobs you like. If you are the winning bidder, the freelance job will be awarded to you.

You may upgrade your free membership to paid membership in these freelance sites. They are not like the scam sites which give fake promise stating that you can start working on data entry and make big money once paying them. The freelance sites make no promise on that. You are paying for the upgrade for using more features of the freelance sites in order to increase your chance of winning a freelance project.

As a data entry freelancer, you should always deliver the final output as per the instructions without mistake and within the specified time. Your employers will satisfy with your quality work and on-time delivery and leave a positive feedback that will build up your profile. A good profile will help you get more freelance projects and make more money.

Money Maker Info Blog Lost Google Rankings about 24 Hours

When I checked my AdSense stat yesterday, I found that my page view and AdSense earning dropped dramatically. So, my first guest was that, this blog must have been experienced a serious drop of traffic. I then went to Google to check the keyword rankings for this blog and found that I lost my no.1 rankings for most of my targeted keywords. Oh my god, Google must have penalized my blog, I said.


But, fortunately today Google sent my blog back to the original top rankings which makes me excited but a little confuse now.

It is so true that Google's ranking Algorithm is very complicated. I have learned and experienced Google search engine optimization for more than a year. I still know not much about how Google is ranking websites. Yes, getting top on Google is about building relevant and quality backlinks; and proper keyword optimizations on your webpage such as Meta title and Meta description tags.

A website that has done well on these things may achieve first page on Google for the main keywords the site has targeted. But Google is smart and monitoring websites closely. A website that reaches top rankings isn't always staying top for long. Google will keep on changing their ranking algorithm, evaluating websites on a regular basis (possible daily) and doing updates. As a result, many webmasters and bloggers have a hard time maintaining their top rankings. Even, some of them have built their backlinks consistently and updated their sites with fresh content, but they still fail to maintain their site rankings when their sites reach certain ages. All these make Google a unique search engine that is unpredictable.

Ranking Drop is My Nightmare
When I first found that my site disappeared on Google's first page for most of the major keywords. I didn't shock at all as I have often seen Google drop websites and got the idea that it could happen to any website. But I feel sad and uncomfortable on this sudden drop; and didn't sleep well yesterday night. Now, I have not idea if this is a warning to Money Maker Info that Google will soon penalize it or is just another Google update that causes temporarily disappear. But one thing for sure is that I will always work on it to keep my Google rankings. Google has sent tons of free traffic to my blog and helped me make good money online.

Google always Did the Right Thing
I personally think that Google has done well in providing quality search result to the users and searchers. I’m sure one of the purposes of Google on changing their ranking algorithm regularly is to provide the best search result (relevant and quality) to the users. Their choose what sites to rank on their first result pages for best keeping and growing their user base and improving the business performance. I have nothing to blame if Google really throws my blog out of top 10.

All Advertisers are Refunded
When my blog disappeared on Google, I have thought about the traffic that I can send to my sponsors who display 125x125 banner ad on my blog. I thought I'm going to be out of top for weeks and not able to generate the amount of traffic (few hundreds of targeted visitors monthly) that I used to generate for them. One of my sponsors has advertised on my blog for more than 4 months. I don’t want to disappoint them, so I made a partial refund to all of them and taken their ads down.

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Knowing What Makes People Buy is Important for Making Money with Internet Marketing - Part 2

Easy and Simple

Everybody wants things to be easy and simple. People are tired of running through life. Life has become so fast-paced, that nobody has the patience to do things manually and want products that can help them complete a job as fast and with as much ease as possible. That’s the reason all these advertising services are so successful. They provide you submission to 100s of directories with just a push of a button. That’s the kind of service people are looking for, something that makes their life easy.

So, if you wish to increase your business, keep whatever you are selling easy and simple. If you are selling an e-book, keep it simple to read and if possible give step-by-step instructions. Just keeping the words ‘easy and simple’ in mind will help you create a product that is user-friendly.

Testimonials
On the internet, day-in and day-out you keep hearing stories about being ripped off by some cheat or the other. It has reached such a stage that the first reaction when something new crops up, is that of being wary and wondering if it is ‘legit’. The fact is, it has become very difficult to understand what is legit and what is not.

This is where testimonials come in. If you can get some respected internet marketers to testify for your product, it shows to people that there are other, that too top marketers that do use your product. This lessens their fear of buying something they know nothing about. It gives you credibility and it’s not only your product that people will trust, but also you.

But then it isn’t all that easy getting testimonials from the big wigs if you are new. You will have to earn them. You will have to contact all the big names in your niche by writing to them and telling them about your product. You can tell them that you would send them a complimentary copy if they are willing to review it. Tell them to give a testimonial only if they feel the product is of value. Although, there will be many people who will turn you down, there will be others who will accept.

Discounts and Sales
If you have just come up with a new product and are planning on selling it, before setting a price, think about the value of your product and look at the competitor’s pricing for a similar product. Then decide on the price and fix that as the ‘normal’ price for your product. Think about what you would be willing to pay for it, if you were the buyer. Make a note of that price and this is your discount price. Include the original price on your website and tell people you are giving a discount for a limited time only. Customers love discounts and sales. Who knows, you may end up making more sales this way.

These are just some of the psychological triggers that make people buy. There are several other and I could go on and on, that you need to master. Some of them are easy to implement and some may take some practice.

Do not be under the impression that internet marketing is just a numbers game, like some people say. They are real people out there, like you and me, buying stuff from us. You would want to feel good about selling to them, about being able to relate to them.

You can make people buy by using any trigger, as long as your conscience is clear that you are giving your customers value for money.

Knowing What Makes People Buy is Important for Making Money with Internet Marketing - Part 1

You have numerous choices of making money with Internet marketing. You can set up you own e-commerce store, promote other people products through affiliate programs, auction your items on eBay, provide freelance services, run content blog and site for Google AdSense and direct ads selling, run paid membership website, write and market your own e-books and many other Internet marketing profit methods.

Most of these methods of making money online have one thing in common. They involve products or services marketing. To be able to effectively market and sell your products to your target prospects, you will need to know the facts of what make people take action to purchase a product or service.

Knowing what make people buy will help you a lot in creating successful marketing campaigns consistently.

Now, let us examine some such ways that make people buy.

Fast Action
One such word is “fast”. Humans are basically very restless in nature and don’t like waiting for something that can be done now. Why do you think we go to fast food restaurants, definitely not because the food is great. We all know why microwave is so popular. Because of busy lifestyles, people don’t have the time to do things leisurely. The word “fast” becomes very relevant in the above examples. Let the customer know that your product increases their productivity and speed. It saves them time.

Money-back Guarantee
People need reassurance. They need to know that they don’t have to worry. That is why a product should be sold with a money-back guarantee, to address this concern in customers. The fact that they have nothing to lose even if they try the product, should be made clear to them and this will make them buy. That is the reason all products in Clickbank come with an unconditional 60-day money back guarantee. If anyone is not happy with the product, they can get a refund. The word ‘guarantee’ packs a whole lot of punch. You don’t have to be afraid giving a guarantee as long as your product is good, because the number of sales will increase dramatically.

Limited quantity
When we say limited, it means the supply is less, which means that you are not selling many of the same products. Psychology states that when people see that there is less supply of a certain product and it may get over soon, they tend to buy that immediately so that they don’t miss that product. They may not care if they actually need it right now. They will buy it hoping they would need it in the future and when they do, there will not be any left. This is called the fear of loss.

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Make Money Blogging: Host Your Blog on a Custom Domain Name

I have been working hard to build and grow this blog. My hard effort do pay off. This blog is currently getting a steady stream of traffic and earn me a nice income. However, there is a one big mistake I have made, which is not hosting this blog on my own domain name. The domain name ‘MoneyMakerInfo.Blogspot.com’ is actually a free domain name provided by Blogger.com and it is belong to Blogger.com.

What this mean is that I will not allow to sell this blog. With the traffic and income I get now, I should be able to sell this blog for more than USD30,000 if I no longer want to blog anymore.

If you are serious to start a blog for making money online, you should register a custom domain name and host your blog on the custom domain. There are several benefits you can enjoy from hosting your own blog on your own domain name:

You Get Total Control
You will have full control over everything about your blog. You can transfer the domain name to any other hosting company if you find that your existing web host service isn’t what you want. Once your blog have built in consistent traffic and bring in good profit, people may start contacting you asking you whether you want to sell your blog. If the deal is good, you can immediate sell the blog.

Easier to Memorize
By hosting your blog on your own domain name, the visitors can remember your blog easier. A free blog domain name generally is long and hard to remember.

Better Security
You will get added security. As the domain name and the blog are owned by you fully, this means that you don’t have to face the risk of getting your suspended or even deleted. When using a free domain name on your blog, the company that provides you the free domain name can delete your blog anytime when they find that your blog content is against their policies.

You Make More Money Blogging
You give a professional image by having your own custom domain name and own logo. More people will contact you to find out whether you sell banner ads or text links which will mean more advertising revenue to your blog. I do get a lot of advertising inquiries from visitors of this free blog even though I didn’t tell any of my visitors that I sell advertising space, probably because this blog ranks high in Google. But, if this blog is hosted on my own domain, I would have get even more businesses.

Senin, 30 Maret 2009

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)

Thomas Henry Huxley, the distinguished zoologist and advocate of Darwinism, madeseveral incursions into philosophy. From his youth he had studied its problems unsystematically; he had a way of going straight to the point in any discussion; and, judged by a literary standard, he was a great master of expository and argumentative prose. Apart from his special work in science, he had an important influence upon English thought through his numerous addresses and essays on the topics of science, philosophy, religion, and politics. Among the most important of his papers relevant here are those entitled 'The Physical Basis of Life' (1868), and 'On the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata' (1874), along with a monograph on Hume (1879) and the Romanes lecture Ethics and Evolution (1893). Huxley is credited with the invention of the term 'agnosticism' to describe his philosophical position: it expresses his attitude towards certain traditional questions without giving any clear delimitation of the frontiers of the knowable. He regards consciousness as a collateral effect of certain physical causes, and only an effect--never also a cause. But, on the other hand, he holds that matter is only a symbol, and that all physical phenomena can be analyzed into states of consciousness. This leaves mental facts in the peculiar position of being collateral effects of something that, after all, is only a symbol for a mental fact; and the contradiction is left without remark.

His contributions to ethics are still more remarkable. In a paper entitled 'Science and Morals' (1888), he concluded that the safety of morality lay "in a real and living belief in that fixed order of nature which sends social disorganization on the track of immorality." His Romanes lecture reveals a different tone. In it the moral order is contrasted with the cosmic order; evolution shows constant struggle; instead of looking to it for moral guidance, he "repudiates the gladiatorial theory of existence." He saw that the facts of historical process did not constitute validity for moral conduct; and his plain language compelled other to see the same truth. But he exaggerated the opposition between them and did not leave room for the influence of moral ideas as a factor in the historical process.

Another man of science, William Kingdon Clifford, professor of mathematics in London, dealt in occasional essays with some central points in the theory of knowledge, ethics, and religion. In these essays he aimed at an interpretation of life in the light of the new science. There was insight as well as courage in all he wrote, and it was conveyed in a brilliant style. But his work was cut short by his early death in 1879, and his contributions to philosophy remain suggestions only.

Hipparchia (fl. 300 BCE)

Hipparchia is notable for being one of the few women philosophers of Ancient Greece. Drawn to the doctrines and the self-imposed hardships of the Cynic lifestyle, Hipparchia lived in poverty with her husband, Crates the Cynic. While no existing writings are directly attributed to Hipparchia, recorded anecdotal accounts emphasize both her direct, Cynic rhetoric and her nonconformity to traditional gendered roles. Entering into marriage is a traditional social role that Cynics would normally reject; yet with her marriage to Crates, Hipparchia raised Greek cultural expectations regarding the role of women in marriage, as well as the Cynic doctrine itself. With her husband, Hipparchia publicly embodied fundamental Cynic principles, specifically that the path toward virtue was the result of rational actors living in accordance with a natural law that eschewed conventional materialism and embraced both self-sufficiency and mental asperity. Written accounts of Hipparchia's life reference in particular both her belief in human shamelessness or anaideia, and her rhetorical acuity at Greek symposiums traditionally attended only by men. Along with Crates, Hipparchia is considered a direct influence on the later school of Stoicism.

1. Life and Philosophy

Hipparchia was a Cynic philosopher from Maroneia in Thrace, who flourished around 300 BCE. She became famous for her marriage to Crates the Cynic, and infamous for supposedly consummating the marriage in public. Hipparchia was likely born between 340 and 330 BCE, and was probably in her mid-teens when she decided to adopt the Cynic mantle. She may have been introduced to philosophy by her brother, Metrocles, who was a pupil in Aristotle’s Lyceum and later began to follow Crates. Most of our knowledge about Hipparchia comes from anecdotes and sayings repeated by later authors. Diogenes Laertius reports that she wrote some letters, jokes and philosophical refutations, which are now lost (see Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Vol. II, tr. R. D. Hicks, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925, reprint 1995, VI.96-98). He adds that myriad stories were told about “the female philosopher”.

Diogenes Laertius claims that Hipparchia was so eager to marry Crates that she threatened to kill herself rather than live in any other way. (DL VI.96.7-8) Although Crates was by this time an old man, she rejected her other youthful suitors because she had fallen in love with “both the discourses and the life” of Crates, and was said to be “captured” by the logos of the Cynics. (VI.96.1 and 4-5) At the request of her parents, Crates tried to talk Hipparchia out of the marriage. (VI.96.9-10) When he failed in this task, he disrobed in front of her and said, “this is the groom, and these are his possessions; choose accordingly.” (VI.96.11-15) This tale should be taken with the proverbial grain of salt, given that Diogenes Laertius is writing centuries later, and that his account may include ‘apt’ stories that are technically false, but which arose and were transmitted because they were taken to be revealing illustrations. Given the interest and controversy generated by the female Cynic, it is easy to imagine stories of this kind being told about her. In any event, we know that Hipparchia chose to marry Crates and share his philosophical pursuits.

Hipparchia’s decision to become a Cynic was surprising, on account of both the Cynic disregard for conventional institutions and the extreme hardship of the lifestyle. Cynics attempted to live “according to nature” by rejecting artificial social conventions and refusing all luxuries, including any items not absolutely required for survival. They gave up their possessions, carrying what few they needed in a wallet. They wore only a simple mantle or cloak, and begged to obtain their basic needs. Crates’ willingness to marry was also unusual, considering that marriage is a social institution of the sort normally rejected by Cynics, and earlier Cynics like Diogenes and Antisthenes had maintained that the philosopher would never marry. A few centuries later, while arguing that marriage is generally unsuitable for the Cynic (or Stoic) philosopher, Epictetus allows for exceptions specifically because of the philosophical marriage of Hipparchia and Crates (Epictetus, Discourses, tr. C. H. Oldfather, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1928). By marrying a Cynic and becoming one herself, Hipparchia thus performed the characteristically Cynic feat of “changing the currency,” both of her culture and the Cynic tradition itself. The Cynic motto of “change the currency” (parakrattein to nomismata), first adopted by Diogenes of Sinope, implied rejection of the prevailing social and political order in favor of an unconventional, self-sufficient life as a “citizen of the universe” (kosmopolites). (It had been said, perhaps falsely, that Diogenes or his father had been driven from Sinope when found guilty of literally defacing the coins and changing their values, but it is also likely that the counterfeiting story arose after he adopted the metaphorical motto.)

Some later authors, such as Apuleius and Augustine, report that Hipparchia and Crates consummated their marriage by having sex on a public porch. Whether the tale is accurate or not, they were known to conduct themselves in all respects according to the Cynic value of anaideia, or shamelessness. The story of Hipparchia’s Cynic marriage quickly became the premiere example of that virtue, which is based on the Cynic belief that any actions virtuous enough to be done in private are no less virtuous when performed in public. As exemplars of anaideia, Hipparchia and Crates influenced their pupil Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. His Republic advocates the equality of the sexes, co-ed public exercise and training, and a version of “free love” wherein those wishing to have sex will simply satisfy their desires wherever they happen to be at the moment, even in public. Stoic ethics were generally influenced by Cynic values, such as self-sufficiency, the importance of practice in achieving virtue, and the rejection of the conventional values attached to pleasure and pain. The Stoics also advocated living according to nature in the sense of conforming one’s own reason to the dictates of the rational natural law.

Eratosthenes reports that Hipparchia and Crates had a son named Pasicles, and Diogenes Laertius’ account of the life of Crates also refers to their son. The Cynic Letters, a collection of pseudographic letters attributed to various Cynic figures and probably written by a several different authors a few centuries after Hipparchia lived, mention that she bore and raised children according to her Cynic values. Whatever the actual details of her practices might have been, her example influenced later Cynic attitudes towards pregnancy and child-rearing. For example, one of the letters attributed to Crates suggests that Hipparchia has given birth “without trouble” because she believes that her usual “labor is the cause of not laboring” during the birth itself (33.14-15). The birth was easier because she continued to work “like an athlete” during her pregnancy (33.17), which the author notes is unusual. The letters also mention Hipparchia’s use of a tortoise shell cradle, cold water for the baby’s bath, and continued adherence to an austere diet.

Hipparchia is also famous for an exchange with Theodorus the Atheist, a Cyrenaic philosopher, who had challenged the legitimacy of her presence at a symposium. She was reported to have regularly attended such functions with Crates. According to Diogenes Laertius, Theodorus quoted a verse from Euripides’ Bacchae, asking if this is she “abandoning the warp and woof and the shuttle” (like Agave returning home from the “hunt” with the head of her son Pentheus). (VI.98.2) Hipparchia affirms that yes, it is she, but asks Theodorus whether she has had the wrong understanding of herself, if she spent her time on education rather than wasting it on the loom. (VI.98.3-6) In the ancient Greek cultural context, women of her social class typically would have been occupied with weaving and organizing the household servants, and Hipparchia’s rejection of the conventional expectations for women was quite radical.

Diogenes Laertius also reports the syllogism that Hipparchia used to put down Theodorus during the same symposium mentioned above: Premise 1: “Any action which would not be called wrong if done by Theodorus, would not be called wrong if done by Hipparchia.” Premise 2: “Now Theodorus does no wrong when he strikes himself”. Conclusion: “therefore neither does Hipparchia do wrong when she strikes Theodorus.” (VI.97.6-9) This is a classic example of the Cynic rhetorical trope of spoudogeloion: a deliberately comic syllogism which nevertheless makes a serious point. Diogenes Laertius says that since Theodorus “had no reply wherefore to meet the argument,” he “tried to strip her of her cloak. But Hipparchia showed no sign of alarm or of the perturbation natural in a woman” (VI.97), as befitted her Cynic commitment to anaideia.

2. References and Further Reading

Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Vol. II, tr. R. D. Hicks (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) 1925 (reprint 1995), VI.96-98.

Abraham J. Malherbe, The Cynic Epistles (Atlanta: Scholar’s Press) 1997, 78-83.

Discussions in the modern period of Hipparchia’s encounter with Theodorus are found in Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary and in Menage’s History of Women Philosophers. See Pierre Bayle, Historical and Critical Dictionary: Selections, ed. Richard H. Popkin and Craig Bush (Indianapolis: Hackett) 1991, 102-103, and Gilles Menage, The History of Women Philosophers, tr. Beatrice H. Zedler (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984), 103.
For further information about Cynic philosophy, see Diogenes Laertius Book VI, as well as D. R. Dudley, A History of Cynicism: From Diogenes to the Sixth Century AD (London) 1937 (reprint Ares Publishing, 1980), and R. Bracht Branham and Marie Odile Goulet-Caze, eds., The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and its Legacy (Berkeley: University of California Press) 2000.

Richard Cumberland (1631-1718)

Laws of Nature. Cumberland's best known work is De Legibus Naturae (1672), the title-page of profess to "consider and refute... the elements of Mr. Hobbes's Philosophy, as well Moral as Civil." It puts forward a doctrine of morality which is based on the law of nature, and this is accompanied by a running criticism of Hobbes's views. Cumberland looks upon the law of nature as capable of being inferred from observation of physical and mental phenomena (themselves due to the will of God), and at the same time as pointing out the "action of a rational agent which will chiefly promote the common good."

He attacks the neo-Platonists, and the theory of innate ideas as a Platonic error:

The Platonists, indeed, clear up this Difficulty in an easier manner, by the Supposition of innate ideas, as well of the Laws of Nature themselves, as of those Matters about which they are conservant; but, truly, I have not been so happy as to learn the Laws of Nature in so short a way. Nor seems it to me well advised, to build the Doctrine of natural Religion and Morality upon an Hypothesis, which has been by the generality of Philosophers as well Heathen as Christian, and can never be proved against the Epicureans, with whom is our chief controversy. [Introduction, Sect. 5]
Laws of Nature, in this ethical reference, are defined by him as "propositions of unchangeable Truth, which direct our voluntary Actions about choosing Good and Evil; and impose an Obligation to external actions even without civil Laws, and laying aside all Considerations of those compacts which constitute civil government" (Ch. 1, p. 39).

He defines 'Good' as "that which preserves, or enlarges and perfects, the Faculties of any one thing, or of several" (Ch. 2, p. 165). It follows that the Law of Nature prescribes those actions which "will chiefly promote the common Good, and by which only the entire Happiness of particular Persons can be obtained" (Ch. 5, p. 189). He also includes both happiness and perfection, or development of faculty, as inseparable elements in the Good. He is particularly concerned with the determination of the form of conduct which will lead to the attainment of this end; and his conclusion is that the best method of securing it is that of benevolence, or regard for the common good, as opposed to selfish preoccupation with our own individual interests. "The greatest Benevolence of every rational Agent towards all, forms the happiness state of every, and of all the Benevolent, as far as is in their Power; and is necessarily requisite to the happiest State which they can attain, and therefore the common Good is the supreme Law" (Ch. 1). This endeavor to promote the common good "includes our Love of God, and of all Mankind, who are the Parts of this System. God, indeed, is the principal Part; Men the subordinate: A benevolence toward both includes Piety and Humanity, that is, both Tables of the Law of Nature" (Introduction, Sect. 15, p. 20).

He repeatedly points out that the common good includes our own, as one of its parts; but it must be sought only as a part, in subordination to the whole. Cumberland's confidence in the perfect coincidence of virtue, or benevolence, and individual happiness ultimately depends upon his doctrine of the divine sanctions of the Laws of Nature. But his main interest in the ethical question is to insist, against Hobbes, upon the "naturalness" of the law of benevolence and the inherent unreasonableness of separating the individual and his good from the system of rational beings of which he is in reality only a part, and with whose good his own is inseparably bound up. Thus, he thinks that the "rules of life" are as plain as the "art of numbering," and the following propositions are laid down as necessarily true: (1) "that the good of all rational beings is greater than the like good of any part of that aggregate body, that is, that it is truly the greatest good"; (2) "that in promoting the good of this whole aggregate, the good of individuals is contained and promoted"; and (3) "that the good of every particular part requires the introducing and settling of distinct property in such things, and such services of rational agents, as contribute to the common happiness."

Cleanthes (331-232 BCE.)

Cleanthes was a Stoic philosopher of Assus in Lydia, and a disciple of Zeno of Citium. After the death of Zeno he presided over his school. He was originally a wrestler, and in this capacity he visited Athens, where he became acquainted with philosophy. Although he possessed no more than four drachma, he was determined to put himself under an eminent philosopher. His first master was Crates, the Academic. He afterward became Zeno's disciple and an advocate of his doctrines. By night he drew water as a common laborer in the public gardens so that he would have leisure to attend lectures in the daytime. The Athenian citizens observed that, although he appeared strong and healthy, he had no visible means of subsistence; they then summoned him before the Areopagas, according to the custom of the city, to give an account of his manner of living. He then produced the gardener for whom he drew water, and a woman for whom he ground meal, as witnesses to prove that he lived by the labor of his hands. The judges of the court were struck with such admiration of his conduct, that they ordered ten minae to be paid him out of the public treasury. Zeno, however, did not allow him to accept it. Antigonus afterward presented him with three thousand minae. From the manner in which this philosopher supported himself, he was called "the well drawer." For many years he was so poor that he was compelled to take notes on Zeno's lectures on shells and bones, since he could not afford to buy better materials. He remained, however, a pupil of Zeno for nineteen years.

His natural faculties were slow. But resolution and perseverance enabled him to overcome all difficulties. At last he became so complete a master of Stoicism that he was perfectly qualified to succeed Zeno. His fellow disciples often ridiculed him for his dullness by calling him an ass. However, his answer was, that if he were an ass he was the better able to bear the weight of Zeno's doctrine. He wrote much, but none of his writings remain except a hymn to Zeus. After his death, the Roman senate erected a statue in honor of him at Assus. It is said that he starved himself to death in his 99th year.

Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688)

Member of seventeenth century school of philosophers known as the "Cambridge Platonists"; b. at Aller, in Somersetshire (12 m. s.w. of. Wells), 1617; d. at Cambridge June 26, 1688. He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632, and, after taking his M.A. degree in 1639, became fellow and tutor of the college. In 1642 he entered the lists against the Catholic party with his first published work, A Discourse concerning the True Nature of the Lord's Supper, which he considers to be that of a "feast upon a sacrifice," analogous to the feasts which followed the legal sacrifices among the Jews; not itself sacrificium, but, in Tertullian's language, participatio sacrificii. Soon after he published The Union of Christ and the Church; in a Shadow, in which he attempted to vindicate what he thought Protestants had too much lost sight of, the higher meaning of marriage. Young as he was, he had already mastered all the main sources of philosophy, medieval as well as classical, and quotes freely from the Neoplatonists and Cabalists, as well as from such modern Platonists as Vives and Pico della Mirandola . In 1644 he was appointed master of Clare Hall by the Parliamentary visitors, and a year later was made regius professor of Hebrew, a position which his knowledge of Jewish literature and antiquities made congenial to him. It seems that he thought of leaving Cambridge in 1651, but the election to the mastership of Christ's College in 1654 settled him there anew. In spite of his close relations with the Commonwealth government, he was undisturbed at the Restoration, and was even presented in 1662 to the rectory of Ashwell in Herefordshire by Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury, and made a prebendary of Gloucester in 1678. Academic and philosophic labors occupied the remainder of his life. Alarmed by the tendencies of the irreligious and deistic writers of the time, especially Hobbes, he essayed to meet them by a counter-philosophy which should go to the depth of human thought and belief. The most important part of what in his conception was intended to constitute one great whole was The True Intellectual System of the Universe, finished in 1671 but not published until 1678. Its full importance was not recognized until after its author's death; Le Clerc published extracts from it in 1703, and attracted to it the attention of Continental thinkers; in 1706 an abridged edition was published in London by Wise; and in 1733 a Latin version appeared with notes of his own, reproduced in the London edition of 1845. In this great treatise Cudworth combated the atheistic hypothesis.

He planned to set forth, against various forms of fatalism which appeared to him inconsistent with the true order of the universe, three great principles which should sum up religious and moral truth. These were (1) the reality of a supreme divine intelligence and a spiritual world, against the atomistic materialism of Democritus and Epicurus; (2) the eternal reality of moral ideas against the medieval Nominalists and their successors; and (3) the reality of moral freedom and responsibility in man against all pantheistic naturalism and stoicism. Of these the Intellectual System deals formally with the first only. To the later parts belong the Treatise on Eternal and Immutable Morality, posthumously published by Bishop Chandler in 1731, and the Treatise on Free Will, ed. Allen, 1838, as well as some two thousand folio pages of manuscript still lying in the British Museum. As a philosopher he was not a pure Platonist; in metaphysics, indeed, he followed Plato and the Neoplatonists, but in natural philosophy the Atomists, and in that of religion Lord Herbert of Cherbury. His theological standpoint was determined partly by his philosophy, partly by the circumstances of his time. He asserted the necessity of revealed religion, but saw in philosophy a divine illumination. Averse from partisan strife, he held a middle course between the rigid High-churchmanship of the school of Laud and Independent fanaticism, combining the recognition, with the former, of the rightfulness of an ecclesiastical constitution and an order of worship, and with the latter of the necessity of inner light and an unswerving devotion to ethical ideals.
 
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