diharap pngunjung ab$en di sini guna mempererat jaringan dunia internet, partisipasi dan kunjungannya kami ucapkan terima kasih.

Senin, 30 Maret 2009

Hipparchia (fl. 300 BCE)

Hipparchia is notable for being one of the few women philosophers of Ancient Greece. Drawn to the doctrines and the self-imposed hardships of the Cynic lifestyle, Hipparchia lived in poverty with her husband, Crates the Cynic. While no existing writings are directly attributed to Hipparchia, recorded anecdotal accounts emphasize both her direct, Cynic rhetoric and her nonconformity to traditional gendered roles. Entering into marriage is a traditional social role that Cynics would normally reject; yet with her marriage to Crates, Hipparchia raised Greek cultural expectations regarding the role of women in marriage, as well as the Cynic doctrine itself. With her husband, Hipparchia publicly embodied fundamental Cynic principles, specifically that the path toward virtue was the result of rational actors living in accordance with a natural law that eschewed conventional materialism and embraced both self-sufficiency and mental asperity. Written accounts of Hipparchia's life reference in particular both her belief in human shamelessness or anaideia, and her rhetorical acuity at Greek symposiums traditionally attended only by men. Along with Crates, Hipparchia is considered a direct influence on the later school of Stoicism.

1. Life and Philosophy

Hipparchia was a Cynic philosopher from Maroneia in Thrace, who flourished around 300 BCE. She became famous for her marriage to Crates the Cynic, and infamous for supposedly consummating the marriage in public. Hipparchia was likely born between 340 and 330 BCE, and was probably in her mid-teens when she decided to adopt the Cynic mantle. She may have been introduced to philosophy by her brother, Metrocles, who was a pupil in Aristotle’s Lyceum and later began to follow Crates. Most of our knowledge about Hipparchia comes from anecdotes and sayings repeated by later authors. Diogenes Laertius reports that she wrote some letters, jokes and philosophical refutations, which are now lost (see Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Vol. II, tr. R. D. Hicks, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925, reprint 1995, VI.96-98). He adds that myriad stories were told about “the female philosopher”.

Diogenes Laertius claims that Hipparchia was so eager to marry Crates that she threatened to kill herself rather than live in any other way. (DL VI.96.7-8) Although Crates was by this time an old man, she rejected her other youthful suitors because she had fallen in love with “both the discourses and the life” of Crates, and was said to be “captured” by the logos of the Cynics. (VI.96.1 and 4-5) At the request of her parents, Crates tried to talk Hipparchia out of the marriage. (VI.96.9-10) When he failed in this task, he disrobed in front of her and said, “this is the groom, and these are his possessions; choose accordingly.” (VI.96.11-15) This tale should be taken with the proverbial grain of salt, given that Diogenes Laertius is writing centuries later, and that his account may include ‘apt’ stories that are technically false, but which arose and were transmitted because they were taken to be revealing illustrations. Given the interest and controversy generated by the female Cynic, it is easy to imagine stories of this kind being told about her. In any event, we know that Hipparchia chose to marry Crates and share his philosophical pursuits.

Hipparchia’s decision to become a Cynic was surprising, on account of both the Cynic disregard for conventional institutions and the extreme hardship of the lifestyle. Cynics attempted to live “according to nature” by rejecting artificial social conventions and refusing all luxuries, including any items not absolutely required for survival. They gave up their possessions, carrying what few they needed in a wallet. They wore only a simple mantle or cloak, and begged to obtain their basic needs. Crates’ willingness to marry was also unusual, considering that marriage is a social institution of the sort normally rejected by Cynics, and earlier Cynics like Diogenes and Antisthenes had maintained that the philosopher would never marry. A few centuries later, while arguing that marriage is generally unsuitable for the Cynic (or Stoic) philosopher, Epictetus allows for exceptions specifically because of the philosophical marriage of Hipparchia and Crates (Epictetus, Discourses, tr. C. H. Oldfather, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1928). By marrying a Cynic and becoming one herself, Hipparchia thus performed the characteristically Cynic feat of “changing the currency,” both of her culture and the Cynic tradition itself. The Cynic motto of “change the currency” (parakrattein to nomismata), first adopted by Diogenes of Sinope, implied rejection of the prevailing social and political order in favor of an unconventional, self-sufficient life as a “citizen of the universe” (kosmopolites). (It had been said, perhaps falsely, that Diogenes or his father had been driven from Sinope when found guilty of literally defacing the coins and changing their values, but it is also likely that the counterfeiting story arose after he adopted the metaphorical motto.)

Some later authors, such as Apuleius and Augustine, report that Hipparchia and Crates consummated their marriage by having sex on a public porch. Whether the tale is accurate or not, they were known to conduct themselves in all respects according to the Cynic value of anaideia, or shamelessness. The story of Hipparchia’s Cynic marriage quickly became the premiere example of that virtue, which is based on the Cynic belief that any actions virtuous enough to be done in private are no less virtuous when performed in public. As exemplars of anaideia, Hipparchia and Crates influenced their pupil Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. His Republic advocates the equality of the sexes, co-ed public exercise and training, and a version of “free love” wherein those wishing to have sex will simply satisfy their desires wherever they happen to be at the moment, even in public. Stoic ethics were generally influenced by Cynic values, such as self-sufficiency, the importance of practice in achieving virtue, and the rejection of the conventional values attached to pleasure and pain. The Stoics also advocated living according to nature in the sense of conforming one’s own reason to the dictates of the rational natural law.

Eratosthenes reports that Hipparchia and Crates had a son named Pasicles, and Diogenes Laertius’ account of the life of Crates also refers to their son. The Cynic Letters, a collection of pseudographic letters attributed to various Cynic figures and probably written by a several different authors a few centuries after Hipparchia lived, mention that she bore and raised children according to her Cynic values. Whatever the actual details of her practices might have been, her example influenced later Cynic attitudes towards pregnancy and child-rearing. For example, one of the letters attributed to Crates suggests that Hipparchia has given birth “without trouble” because she believes that her usual “labor is the cause of not laboring” during the birth itself (33.14-15). The birth was easier because she continued to work “like an athlete” during her pregnancy (33.17), which the author notes is unusual. The letters also mention Hipparchia’s use of a tortoise shell cradle, cold water for the baby’s bath, and continued adherence to an austere diet.

Hipparchia is also famous for an exchange with Theodorus the Atheist, a Cyrenaic philosopher, who had challenged the legitimacy of her presence at a symposium. She was reported to have regularly attended such functions with Crates. According to Diogenes Laertius, Theodorus quoted a verse from Euripides’ Bacchae, asking if this is she “abandoning the warp and woof and the shuttle” (like Agave returning home from the “hunt” with the head of her son Pentheus). (VI.98.2) Hipparchia affirms that yes, it is she, but asks Theodorus whether she has had the wrong understanding of herself, if she spent her time on education rather than wasting it on the loom. (VI.98.3-6) In the ancient Greek cultural context, women of her social class typically would have been occupied with weaving and organizing the household servants, and Hipparchia’s rejection of the conventional expectations for women was quite radical.

Diogenes Laertius also reports the syllogism that Hipparchia used to put down Theodorus during the same symposium mentioned above: Premise 1: “Any action which would not be called wrong if done by Theodorus, would not be called wrong if done by Hipparchia.” Premise 2: “Now Theodorus does no wrong when he strikes himself”. Conclusion: “therefore neither does Hipparchia do wrong when she strikes Theodorus.” (VI.97.6-9) This is a classic example of the Cynic rhetorical trope of spoudogeloion: a deliberately comic syllogism which nevertheless makes a serious point. Diogenes Laertius says that since Theodorus “had no reply wherefore to meet the argument,” he “tried to strip her of her cloak. But Hipparchia showed no sign of alarm or of the perturbation natural in a woman” (VI.97), as befitted her Cynic commitment to anaideia.

2. References and Further Reading

Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Vol. II, tr. R. D. Hicks (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) 1925 (reprint 1995), VI.96-98.

Abraham J. Malherbe, The Cynic Epistles (Atlanta: Scholar’s Press) 1997, 78-83.

Discussions in the modern period of Hipparchia’s encounter with Theodorus are found in Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary and in Menage’s History of Women Philosophers. See Pierre Bayle, Historical and Critical Dictionary: Selections, ed. Richard H. Popkin and Craig Bush (Indianapolis: Hackett) 1991, 102-103, and Gilles Menage, The History of Women Philosophers, tr. Beatrice H. Zedler (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984), 103.
For further information about Cynic philosophy, see Diogenes Laertius Book VI, as well as D. R. Dudley, A History of Cynicism: From Diogenes to the Sixth Century AD (London) 1937 (reprint Ares Publishing, 1980), and R. Bracht Branham and Marie Odile Goulet-Caze, eds., The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and its Legacy (Berkeley: University of California Press) 2000.

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar

 
http://www.tokonjo.co.cc http://bisnis-online2000.blogspot.com Yuwie Corner Tempat Nyari Duit Duit Gratisan Free Promote Your Blog Today ryNtept Celahbisnis.com banner setetes embun MetodeKaya.Com Inspirasi Hidup Buat Mesin Uang Tanpa Modal Korpri Dephan downloads Image and video hosting by TinyPic gratisan fotosandradewi.blogspot.com my chicket jmw Dunia Bisnis Indonesia world Tourism Free download software games and application for handphone at gamezhp.co.nr Forex20pip Kolom Inspirasi Photobucket
1. Blogger Ceria
2. GARAM ASIN
3. Tutorial photoshop
4. C H A T T I N G
5. Anything I Want To Write
6. Musik888
7. makeyourscream
8. Or La Nd
9. mr_ fozz
10. GONDES
11. dnrestcom
12. Angga Weblog
13. Serba Gratis
14. Winziph
15. nirvana
16. qimpol08
17. pinginbelajar
18. Imam Wildan
19. Stefanus
20. rogustra. co. cc
21. Daftar Search Engine
22. amsi
23. Best Mp3 Players
24. Beauty Healthy
25. Love and Life
26. ROMERO
27. heri heryanto
28. Cartalirik
29. awang
30. LI
31. HAPIA Mesir
32. loethfi
33. kumpul klik
34. noexs
35. envy pelangsing
36. 13
37. cah nakal poool
38. Free Premium Template
39. neilhoja
40. Den' Rama Community
41. link sex education
42. author's creativity
43. suradipa
44. neo
45. Ayan
46. ilham maulana
47. edo_ voodoo
48. Samiun
49. Jambo Rujak
50. Dokter Uang
51. Download Map Dota
52. satyawiguna
53. sepur
54. shelo's garden
55. sweet_ shelo
56. Jasa Klik Iklan
57. Indra
58. Hypocrite
59. Promosi Web dan Blog
60. antoniuszs
61. akub
62. IM- Blog
63. PTC wae..
64. kecekecil
65. Can301
66. Ka Vi_ Bor La Nd
67. shidiq
68. ems desain grafis
69. didin
70. referensi
71. devit1104
72. PIT- ONTA
73. The Rain Say...
74. yahood's business
75. Brockbox 7
76. sex
77. beauty
78. oxana
79. Deci L
80. Keker Bisnis
81. Edwin
82. STASIUN BIDAN
83. SEO
84. SCIENTIFIC FASTING
85. akub86. magbook. is Great. org
87. MD- JOBS
88. bisnis lancar
89. Diqer
90. Penchenk
91. macacci
92. Belajar Bisnis
93. DUNIA KITA
94. Free article
95. rahmat
96. community links
97. jo
98. adsense
99. Nadia
100. Nia Shop
101. campur- aneh
102. KUMAGCOW
103. dede
104. ====--- KUCING BUNTED
105. Stevani CANTIK
106. hafiz online
107. NKOB
108. Link Exchange Free
109. BLT
110. Pakdhe
111. orang iseng kere
112. Mesothelioma
113. kifni41
114. Beauty Healthy
115. Haddy
116. adsense
117. ozieback
118. envy
119. Orang Pelabuhan
120. SOFTWARE GRATIS
121. BUNDEG BLOG MAGAZINE
122. Rama
123. Reinkarnasi Sang Saka
124. aravind
125. Achlis Djafar
126. itcommunion
127. Hot Actress
128. heryanto
129. Iklan Gratis
130. mbah jack
131. yoyok
132. addvalue
133. addvalue
134. Information of Health Insurance
135. dnrestcom
136. link- exchange
137. Electronic Review
138. Gadget Review
139. Fantastic Gadget
140. Ebookshoot
141. Misi Cari Duit
142. budiawanhutasoit
143. Tips Cinta/ Love
144. SKANDAL ARTIS INDONESIA
145. Indra Munawar
146. 101way to love your wife
147. muhammad Alwi CH
148. SEHARI Rp350RB
149. chempluk
150. iklan adsense google
151. Jong Java Revolution
152. devit1104
153. mensecret
154. mas guru
155. rizaladha
156. Marina
157. nyari duit gratis
158. The first investment
159. STASIUN ALEXA
160. Sarbini
161. Sakura babes
162. devil. harajuku
163. hihi... GAMBAR OKEH...
164. ibel
165. cewek seksi
166. d Jac K_ p0t
167. Owner Vitalysite Cafe
168. link 10000 visitor
169. jitakan yu
170. akub171. All TV Service Menu
172. beauty- tips
173. E- NOVEL BERKUALITAS
174. business information center
175. BEAUTY AND HEALTHY TIPS
176. kadri
177. sinta
178. Belajar bisnis
179. ems design graphic
180. Mas Fays
181. Boy
182. timetobusiness
183. Tova Zone
184. uang gratis
185. ------- manusia ter PAYAH di bumi Indonesia, mungkin juga di Planet ini
186. link promosi
187. ko- pas
188. RAMBO
189. encun
190. kecekecil
191. Free Template BLogspot
192. Miva
193. Bujas_ 009
194. Siak | Bunga Raya
195. 1000
196. Komunitas Blogger Universitas Muhammadiyah
197. Info dan Hiburan
198. Akenshi
199. ali yusrie
200. PNS Go- Blog
201. PTC BOX
202. Forex Trading Blog
203. ABANG CAYANK
204. beautyhealthy
205. PPRATE
206. Cewek Djokdja
207. gigihsan
208. Lynn
209. free $50 every day.! Realy...! New
210. DUIT GRATISSSSS
211. Most Wanted
212. absen link
213. collection of interesting articles
214. Scientific Explanations
215. Artis Porno kah?
216. sijagur20
217. joe
218. Blognya Chandra Praditya
219. Muhammad Rizky
220. slurpz
221. Rudee Rada GEBLEK!!
222. aan
223. C E R I T A
224. S E T T I N G M O D E M
225. uang gratis duit
226. dollar guede bgt
227. Budak Gaul
228. fajar
229. trik- tipsblog
230. jumawa
231. agung
232. Cosplay Square
233. oyat
234. devil divinity
235. Haady Firmansyah
236. ryanperdana
237. IPL MANIA
238. baby
239. TUTORIAL OF TUTORIALS
240. cewek sexi
241. oboth
242. Iklan Baris Gratis
243. mau mau mau
244. makeyourscream
245. king blogger
246. ulied
247. Kang Marno
248. uang gratisssss$$$$$$
249. Free Movie Download
250. www. tridizone. co. cc
251. blog keren
252. freemusic. freegames@ gmail. com
253. Diet Fitness Online
254. Hyu Dae Kim

link asing

analynkikay / honeysinlove / texas-sweetie / anniniput / anlittlehouse / coffeenchoclate / angsawariko / dhiyanne / allbestofphilippines / axlarevalo / auxiliaryzero / craizie / azuwachan / kusinerasaamerika / heinzbadz / chilloutpad / myshadow-neophyte / wedding-wonderful / berryblitz79 / barbraanne / jeepneysaparis / blessiesanctuary / kcuizon13 / gmunchkincom/ mylovestrings / caffeinated-muse / dcookingmudra / badavid / c-memoirist / bridgearoundthecorner / morningmonster / my-expedition / smartlu / catsycarpediem / christie-kisstie / reanaclaire / lonerwithpreciousmemories / cinderella100184 / brownpinaycom/ coolbusteratyourservice / cocoy19 / domesticgoddesscrista / darlene06 / according2whom / divlopez / denancomp/ zbhlms / royalmocha / eddysu / edikdolotina / behindlights / carlsonclanadventure / pearlsofserendipity / everythingkimchi / stevemzhemme / edsnanquil / fana92 / sweetly-enchanted / feiyie / bloggersrecollections / casperchixx / francescainfrance / freezebox / motivationtoyou / sexymindperiod / goresangelly / gerelynsweetmemories / gerthy-sanctuary / gianpaolosamson / vjforevercom/ starofgigicom/ savetheearth-now / ransophisticated / gracefulblog / greenerose / gwapa84 / mymotivation / medicinestuffs / stylishbabe111407 / glitch-music-station / icelogtimecom/ ie-student / charlize06 / paintyourlife / idleinmakati / emotional-feeling / invlnrblescripts / okeyto / dp2fc / idealpinkrose / cruisingfamily385com/ oohsenaahs / simplyjackiecom/ jamandkyle4evercom/ seashellsofislandangel / pinkandblackblogcom/ malditangbunso / myblogportfoliocom/ labskiddies / hawaiianalifecom/ it-my-life / yourlasthigh / peterjanetcom/ janu-jenn / shutterhappenings / fetchyeah / jasper-seah / familiakhuletz / janetpaculanan / jeannepomuceno / jennwasherecom/ rogandjemicom/ coloredrockets / pinoyako-jeanmarie / iamjeancom/ photojaye / exiffer / jennjourney2life / jennlordcom/ jeypriey / anneblythe / jk-nocargo / six-thirteen / brainloops / reejane / the-working-mom / thelonelyplanet / buzzybeemom / thefishgate / tanjuakiohome / kaireyescom/ kayceesbubble / kheycee / xxamazingxx / kimchiland / julaitravels / langging / laurastone / gingging38com/ pinaydotuscom/ limferdi / lalainejesu / lindyyy / mamalira / filam04com/ faerydancing / lloydbelleza / mad-blogs / mumarmadel / btjam / cherishdreamlive / maeallenith / mundonimaialog / leekhuan80 / fairyland-scribbler08 / exoticmalyn / umakchorale / mariajustine / hippypersonalsnet/ vmarie00 / observerseyes / meg818 / memsantiago / michwood / melkevin / momhoodmomentscom/ bisayako07 / elsewhere14 / truthsandconsequences / vivacious-baby / moccalyn / m2factorial / minapalencia / mommyallehs / nanaykrung / mommyhoodmoments / pumpkint / ammuthalibs / tanah-negeriku / onlinememorylane / movies-galleries / natzangelik / noeticrenegade / laytech / simpliving / newmusicupdate / footsteps-of-the-sun / askmewhats / nyumix-everythingshere / kurdapyazathomecom/ nyumix / agnestetter / norapb / pinthoughts / thelaughlines / sugar-en-spice / pinaysmilejourneys / mylifeslabyrinth / abouttechnewsandupdates / slippahs-haven / pulangbanca / mysubconcioustalks / classickingfisher / rame-ash / thelawofrantaro / ranfamous / realamazingworld / picsdelight / abunchofdreams / hookmysmirk / lovellegen / gogoleisure / hellopinas / surigaobabe / resebel / renzalc / rester-reesie / thedestinyofmylife / ilovenurses / robertfel / rroffemix / rokoksalemforex / cuterose13 / rubysurvivorarmywife / purehearted19 / ryantakyancom/ moreno97 / fetishfusion / savenathan / schumey / theimmortalbeauty / sendorero / smakeme / thehandymansblog / noahandkaeden / shimumsy / manilashogun / forex-ideas / adamsheaven / skyllesdlimit / 1dollardvdnet/ firmancollection / obiasadventure / alltamilmoviereviews / s0ulsistaz / spongebubhugsmilescom/ rj2008 / alifeinbloom / dworldsround / islandcorrespondentcom/ pahiyom / sabelmorenocom/ tonyroda / tracyramos / wellapot / vinapineda / v-r-rockingdudes / pakkatikka / wannabesupermodel / vialentino / bidyan / twice-k / lovingtweety / monliam / mcahova / techyplus / wengzaballa / imwenzi / kageron / exquisite-von / exorminator / summer-95degrees / writeshy / janyen / wonghongweng / rowenatadiarca / elladeprincesse / wenlopred / zhoewynz / sreisaat / tonijauhari / ancillaysi / ponsel1 / ag-syam / jerapah-nursery / interisty4ina / mentengprada / tuahtanto / haryantotips / patrickresort / cac09 / agungwasono / jalanjalanmakanmakan / numairunizar / freakz-zone / erwin-arianto / gudangkita / up-grade-your-life / bilah9 / kursus-valas / komunitassaxophoney2k / pojok-waroengkopi / games4mania / sekolah-dasar/ aku007theblogger / gie-mm2 / iniblogsaia / blogspode / gimbalengkos2008 / chantshome / six-thirteen / cia-libra74 / /movie-holicnet/ digitalpolaroids / donnadegracia / joespimmpinblogsomecom/ hanif-pesawat / bestinteriorphotos / sillydrunkfish/ jonsgalvez / kristinadiansafitry / mahen-jambi / menulissenja / marilynkatecom/ meg818 / betamedialink / mlizcochico / beatstage / newmusicupdate / mylou11 / alwaysnina / rudyh-smk3kng / oriflamekozmetik / pems-moviesblog / phantom8x / sonyericssonedition / semarangreview / love-sexandmarriage/ tonijauhari / topformsecretscom/ vinslounge / 101investing / cafedeelectronics / couen / damnavril / bleuester / 1puzzlepiece / cintatips / nookiesmind / selaluklik / zhoewynz / annettemarcos / agneshee / theholleyheraldcom/ amalgamations-aarveeve9 / aboels / pinay-at-heart / musicroom84 / angelnoah / nse-bsetradingtips